If you were to launch an investigation into whether the state should subsidize part-time jobs, part-time jobs for women, and jobs that lead to low pensions – probably very few would say: Yes, that seems like an idea. brilliant. With mini and midi jobs, however, it’s pretty much the same, in different ways.
Mini-jobbers can earn up to 450 euros per month and do not have to pay taxes or contributions to unemployment, health and long-term care insurance; they may be exempt from compulsory pension insurance. Commercial employers pay lump sum contributions to health, pension and accident insurance, plus taxes and levies. In return, they benefit from the fact that mini-jobbers can be deployed extremely flexibly, which is why it also works for them.
The idea behind this type of job is to create attractive and low-threshold access to the labor market, a first step towards employment subject to social security contributions. In fact, it works far too rarely. In addition, the mini job is only a part-time job for nearly three of the seven million marginal part-time workers. Because they have more net than gross in the mini-job, it is sometimes worth more than overtime or full-time in a main job subject to social contributions. However, such a combination has a negative effect on retirement and career advancement. In the main phase of employment and among those who work exclusively as mini-jobbers, women are over-represented, with all the negative consequences for their pensions and the development of their own careers, regardless of their partner’s income and profession. . It is not eligible for funding.
And because there are mini jobs, there must also be midi jobs. Because without the so-called transition zone between marginal employment and full employment of social security, 450.01 euros in full taxes and in some cases also taxes would be due – and the already significant attraction of the mini -employment would be increased. Therefore, at least the employee contributions for midi jobbers only increase with the increase in income. Since the last reform of the Labor Minister of the SPD Hubertus Heil, this transition zone only ends at 1,300 euros. It also has the side effect that you have to think twice about whether a job beyond that limit is worth it. Because it makes it even more difficult that the reduced pension contributions of midi jobbers no longer lead to lower pensions. The state fills this gap – to the detriment of social security and other contributors. This is a good thing for employers; in case of doubt, they can even translate what the employee saves in contributions into lower wages.
The limit of mini-tasks should be lowered
90 percent of midi jobbers work part-time, three-quarters are women who are more at risk of poverty among the elderly than men. It is also open to criticism that with this model, the State not only subsidizes low wages who barely manage to make ends meet, but also, for example, women for whom a midday job is sufficient because their partner also earns them for they. This is nonsense in terms of distribution policy – and it is of no use to women, because even a subsidized midday job does not give them economic independence.
Nevertheless, according to the electoral program, the SPD wishes to extend the midday zone even further, up to 1600 euros. On the other hand, it attacks the mini-job with its promise of a higher minimum wage: if it came, but the mini-job ceiling was not raised, the mini-jobbers would not benefit from the minimum wage anymore. raised. The employment model would become less attractive. The FDP and the Union, on the other hand, want to raise the ceiling for mini-jobs, the FDP calls it “performance-based”, the Union “flexible”. In fact, however, a questionable form of employment would take root in this way. The left, in turn, wants to abolish mini-jobs, as the Greens are doing, with exceptions for retirees and students.
The next federal government should at least think about lowering the limit on mini-jobs; as a part-time job, this construction should in any case be completely abolished. The midi jobs would then no longer be necessary. The goal should be regular employment. Because neither a professional life nor a retirement plan can be built on a mini or a midi job.